Lecturer: Alan Goldberg, PhD, AT of Johns Hopkins University.
This lecture presents the historical development of humane science (in vitro and alternative approaches) in the toxicological evaluation of xenobiotics. Animal testing methodologies, once widely accepted, are less able to be extrapolated to humans than once assumed, and several studies, such as the Draize ocular toxicity assay and the Local Lymph Node Assay, have fallen out of favor. This, together with ethical considerations for the use of animals have resulted in an effort to replace, reduce, or refine studies so that fewer animals are used in research. These changes have resulted in increased acceptance of alternatives to animal testing and increased pressure for regulatory agencies to validate and utilize these tests. The National Academy of Sciences publication Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century became the tipping point for broader acceptance of in vitro approaches in toxicology. The presentation describes, with multiple examples, how the field developed, documents the major advances in practice, and provides a glimpse into the future of new technologies.